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hybrid

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Everything posted by hybrid

  1. hybrid

    Just starting linux

    What you've described looks like a great way to partition your hard drive! To get access to your NTFS files, as feedmebits says, you should be able to just click it and (possibly) enter your password and see the files right away. Do you see it (if it has a name, or something like '1TB volume') listed in the sidebar when you are looking at your files? Who is telling you to install pysdm?
  2. hybrid

    Hi Everyone

    Hello and welcome! Thanks for your introduction -- we're quite the 'small' community at the moment, but we hope we'll prove more helpful and less RTFM-focused than others! I've found the best way to learn new stuff is to pick little projects for yourself. Get excited about some cool thing, play around with it, break it, fix it, break it again, fix it, until you really understand what you're doing. I've been following that sort of cycle since I started with Linux -- over time you start to pick up a wide body of knowledge, and more importantly, get a sense of where to look when things go wrong. So, if there's anything you're playing with on Linux, or any crazy ideas, do let us know, and we'll see if we can help! If I'm a little slow in responding to another thread you make, poke me in this one, as I'll now get email updates. Again, a very warm welcome. Let's play Linux!
  3. The first thing I would do here is temporarily set debug_options in the Squid configuration file to a higher level. I played with Squid a while back now, but I always found that it did tend to spit out a lot of useful information in the log file. If you set that and restart Squid and try to access the site in question, we will then get a lot more information that might help track down what actions Squid is taking, and in what order. Also, could we see the whole squid config file (redacted, if necessary)? Perhaps this particular ACL is working, but it is being overridden by something else that is being given higher priority due to where it is in the file.
  4. I use Samba on a CentOS 6 server to share files between Windows, Linux and Mac clients. Guest access is allowed to all folders, but is read only, and there are several Samba accounts for writing files to the shares. The purpose of this tutorial is to document, roughly, what my configuration was to set up Samba for sharing a couple of folders on the local network in this way. Install Samba # yum install samba # service smb start # service nmb start # chkconfig nmb on # chkconfig smb on Create the sharing directories (In my actual setup, I have used /etc/fstab to mount these directories on separate, large disks, so there's plenty of space. That's beyond the scope of this tutorial, but: /etc/fstab UUID=xxxxxxxxx /var/lib/samba/photos ext3 defaults 1 0 UUID=xxxxxxxxx /var/lib/samba/sharedfiles ext3 defaults 1 0 with the real UUIDs substituted in!) Let's create the two directories where our shared files will be stored: # mkdir /var/lib/samba/photos # mkdir /var/lib/samba/sharedfiles Add the users and groups In order to support this model of guests having read only access, and granting write access only to known users, we need to have some users and groups set up at the Unix level. The users and groups at the Unix level map to some of the Samba users we will create later. They are separate users -- having a Samba login and password doesn't mean you have to give the user in question shell access, because they are two separate accounts and can have two separate passwords. We simply use the users, as I said, to 'map' the Samba credentials to the Unix permissions on disk. We will also create a group, samba-writers, to allow us to have group write access to the shared folders. I'll add my user account, peter, to this group. # groupadd samba-writers # usermod -a -G samba-writers peter Let's set the permissions on our two shared folders for this group: # chown peter:samba-writers /var/lib/samba/photos # chown peter:samba-writers /var/lib/samba/sharedfiles # chmod 775 /var/lib/samba/photos # chmod 775 /var/lib/samba/sharedfiles Mode '775' on a directory allows the user (peter), the group (samba-writers) to write files, and others (guests) to just read. Now, let's add the mappings between Samba users and Unix users. Open /etc/samba/smbusers using your favourite text editor. I'll use vim throughout this guide. # vim /etc/samba/smbusers peter = peter user1 = user1 user2 = user2 The example accounts user1 and user2 will be for our other Samba-enabled accounts. Again, we will create Unix shell accounts for user1 and user2, but use different passwords for SMB and their Unix account, and not share the shell password with the users. They only need and want Samba access, so we won't let them log in to the shell. First, we'll set my password for Samba. A different password from my shell login password. # smbpasswd -a peter ('-a' to add the user for the first time. To change it later, just 'smbpasswd peter') And let's add the other users. # useradd -G samba-writers -s /sbin/nologin user1 # passwd user1 # smbpasswd -a user1 Notice we set the shell to /sbin/nologin. These users, as I've said several times already, we are not allowing shell access. # useradd -G samba-writers -s /sbin/nologin user2 # passwd user2 # smbpasswd -a user2 Set up the configuration files Now that our users are ready for Samba, we need to set up the Samba configuration to share the two folders we've created, and allow the right level of access to users, as well as to guests. # vim /etc/samba/smb.conf The default CentOS configuration file has quite a lot already in it. Look for the headings, and make these changes: Under Network Related Options: workgroup = WORKGROUP server string = Server Shared Files netbios name = MACHINENAME hosts allow = 127. 192.168.0. hosts deny = ALL Set WORKGROUP to the workgroup name, if it's configured differently on your Windows clients. (On some older Windows versions, it may need to be MSHOME.) Set MACHINENAME to the name you want the Samba server to have. Finally, we use the 'hosts allow' and 'hosts deny' directives to force Samba only to serve to clients on the local network. In this case, 192.168.0.1 -- 192.168.0.254. You may want to change this to your IP addressing scheme in your network, or remove it to not restrict access to the local network. Under Standalone Server Options: security = user passdb backend = tdbsam map to guest = Bad Password domain master = yes Under Browser Control Options: local master = yes os level = 99 preferred master = yes These directives aren't strictly necessary -- in fact, they may cause conflict if you're doing other Windows networking things on the same workgroup. 'os level = 99', combined with the other options, will force this machine to be the 'local master browser' (LMB) and the 'domain master browser' (DMB). Whichever machine on the network has these roles is responsible for keeping a list of the other machines on the network. Clients use this list to look for other machines that have shared folders available. I've found that forcing my Samba server to be the LMB and DMB, as well as using it as a WINS server, speeds up the time it takes Windows to 'search' for other machines on the network by many many times. (Remember opening 'My Network Places' and clicking 'Show workgroup computers' only to have to wait 15 seconds while Explorer locks up? This avoids that.) In more complex scenarios, you might not want to enable this to avoid conflict. For our small network scenario, it's a useful speed bonus and causes no problems. Under Name Resolution: wins support = yes Samba becomes a WINS server, which again can help speed things up -- it means you can address other sharing computers by name without waiting for long periods for NetBIOS to resolve the name. (Some more tech info about this, if you're interested.) You may want to configure your Windows machines' 'WINS server' IP address to point to your Samba server to get this benefit. (You might need to configure this in your router's DHCP settings for it to stick to all of them.) Finally, at the bottom of the file, we add our shares: [sharedfiles] comment = Shared files for the network path = /var/lib/samba/sharedstuff guest ok = yes writable = no create mask = 0664 directory mask = 0775 force group = samba-writers write list = @samba-writers [Photos] comment = Shared photos path = /var/lib/samba/photos guest ok = yes writable = no create mask = 0664 directory mask = 0775 force group = samba-writers write list = @samba-writers Each folder has its own name in brackets, followed by the options for that folder. We use 'guest ok = yes' to allow guests, but 'writable = no' to make them read only. Anyone in the 'write list' (anyone in the group samba-writers) can write. There are also other settings to set the default permisisons on files ('create mask = 0664', owner read+write, group read+write, others read only) and folders ('directory mask = 0775', owner read+write+enter, group read+write+enter, others read+enter). Once we're done, save that file and quit the editor, and reload Samba: # service smb restart # service nmb restart Just make sure your firewall is letting Samba through: # system-config-firewall-tui And we're ready to test! Accessing the shares Linux Without logging in, we can access the shares by going to smb://machinename (or smb://192.168.0.whatever) in the address bar of the file manager. This works in most file managers. To log in and have write access, you may have luck with a 'Connect to Server' window that lets you type in the username and password, like this one in the Ubuntu 12.04 desktop's File menu. I've had problems with write access this way, though, so you may need to use something like smbfs to mount the share permanently. Mac Under recent versions of Mac OS X, the server should appear right away in the Finder's sidebar. Simply click the server name to see the shares and browse them. For write access, simply click the 'Connect As' button in the window and enter your username and password for SMB that you set up earlier. If you don't see the server in the sidebar, (Lion is more temperamental than Snow Leopard was about this), press ⌘K to bring up the 'Connect to Server' dialogue. Type cifs://machinename or cifs://192.168.0.whatever and click OK to connect. Windows The server should show up in 'Network' for guest access. The best way to log in and have write access, I have found, is to map the shared folder as a network drive. In an Explorer window, click 'Map Network Drive' in the toolbar (it's under the Tools menu on Windows XP and earlier). Choose a drive letter, enter \\machinename\foldername as the path, and make sure you tick to 'Connect using different credentials'. You'll then be asked for the username and password, which is the SMB password you set for the account earlier.
  5. Apparently, it isn't possible to map multiple Samba users to one Unix user while also having separate passwords for the Samba users. https://lists.samba.org/archive/samba/2011-March/161335.html Separate accounts and force group works well for me, though. Yes, you have to create the Unix users one time, but they are locked down appropriately with /sbin/nologin as their shell, and any user with the right group membership can access files anyone has dropped in the folder.
  6. hybrid

    Debian PORT CLOSED

    So the first thing we need to identify is where the SSH port is being made unavailable -- is it in SSH itself, or a firewall? What port are you expecting SSH to be running on? The default, port 22? In rescue mode, you can examine the SSH config file by typing this at the prompt, and pressing Enter: less /etc/ssh/sshd_config You can use Space to scroll down a screen, and press 'q' to quit looking at the file and go back to the prompt. We're looking for the 'Port' line to verify what port SSH thinks it's running on. We should check to see if SSH is enabled. Running: update-rc.d ssh enable Were any firewall changes made by you, or the hosting provider?
  7. hybrid

    what am i doing wrong?

    Potentially stupid question on my part -- did you go through an install, or just boot into Ubuntu to try it out when the CD was in? If you did go through an install, it sounds like Ubuntu might be installed, but there is no boot loader. The boot loader would give you the list of choices as to which operating system you want to use when you start up. This isn't too difficult to fix in terms of what you actually need to do, but it's a little bit fiddly. (If it's too fiddly, maybe a reinstall will help. Perhaps we can help you pick the options and notice if there are any problems installing the bootloader.) To see if Ubuntu is installed, could you, from Windows, do Start > Run > compmgmt.msc > OK. Then if you look for Disk Management in the left, could you screenshot what you get there? We'd be looking for a partition of a reasonable size that you created where Ubuntu is hiding. (Windows will probably see it as 'unknown' in some way).
  8. hybrid

    Hello there

    Welcome!
  9. hybrid

    New but hopeful!

    Just out of interest, can you configure RDP on the Windows side to not drop the connection on 'logout'? In my testing, when I log out of Windows inside the RDP session, the session itself closes. Perhaps I'm missing something obvious; avoiding the connection dropping at all and just making it look like a 'Windows machine' for all intents and purposes would seem ideal.
  10. hybrid

    New but hopeful!

    Perhaps removal of the LXDE panel (commenting out the @lxpanel line above), combined with re-enabling pcmanfm for the desktop, and just having desktop shortcuts for reconnecting or shutting down might solve your issues around people fiddling. Once LXPanel is disabled and a 'blank' desktop background chosen, it really does feel barren (and scary?), such that it might look like nothing is 'there' to play with, except the two shortcuts you leave on the desktop.
  11. hybrid

    New but hopeful!

    I've had some success with LXDE and Remmina to make the Pi a RDP client straight from switch-on. There is a caveat -- once the user disconnects the RDP session, they might need to double-click an icon on the LXDE desktop to re-establish the connection. Install Remmina Remote Desktop client sudo apt-get install remmina Configure the Connection Open up Remmina, and set up a 'connection' to your RDP server (Connection > New). Check it works by connecting, then close Remmina. Browse to the ~/.remmina folder to find the name of the new .remmina file for this connection. You can rename it to something more friendly - I'll call it server.remmina. Configure Remmina for Autostart Edit the file /etc/xdg/lxsession/LXDE/autostart, so that it reads: @lxpanel --profile LXDE #@pcmanfm --desktop --profile LXDE @xscreensaver --no-splash /bin/sh -c "remmina -c ~/.remmina/server.remmina" Configure the Pi to boot to GUI Use raspi-config to configure the Pi to boot straight to the GUI. Also use these instructions to configure auto-login for the user account. (For security, consider adding a separate user account for the RDP login use that does not have sudo privileges, and auto-login to that user instead of the admin-capable one.) --- Now we have a Pi that boots straight to the GUI, logs in, and immediately launches Remmina which connects over RDP to the target system we set up earlier. The caveat, as I mentioned, is that once Remmina quits, the user is left at the LXDE screen. Perhaps a shortcut/launcher to Remmina, called 'Reconnect', needs to be left on the desktop, which launches remmina -c ~/.remmina/server.remmina. Also, users may need to be educated about how to shut down the thin client. Perhaps another desktop shortcut which shuts down the Pi could solve that?
  12. hybrid

    New but hopeful!

    Welcome! I'm just wondering how far you've got so far with LXDE -- is it working, but you're just wondering if there's something more lightweight? If it does work right now, is it that the performance is too slow, or that there are other desktop-y things getting in the way of it just loading up immediately and swiftly? I'm happy to meddle with this on my own Pi, but I'd love to know how far you've got and what the goal is. My thoughts are perhaps Window Maker, to avoid a whole desktop environment and just have a window manager, which auto-starts RDesktop. If this sounds interesting, I'll have a play on my Pi and let you know how it goes.
  13. hybrid

    Hello Everyone

    Welcome Darshik; it's great to have you here! When first investigating the terminal, doing some simple file management is often a good place to start. If you open up the Terminal, you'll be in your home folder normally, which we represent with a ~ character. You might see in the terminal window something like: your_username@your_machinename:~$ This is the prompt -- and the ~ tells us we are in your home folder. The $ just tells us that the prompt is finished; the next thing you type will be a command. So, when you see a $ sign in people's tutorials involving the command line (like my snippets below), that means you don't type it in. It's just there to show you which bits are commands (lines that start with $) and which bits aren't! The first command to explore is pwd, which stands for print working directory. This tells you, more clearly than the ~, which folder you're currently in. I might see this: $ pwd /home/hybrid To see the contents of the current working directory, we can use ls to get a list: $ ls (You'll see what's in your home directory.) If I want to move into another folder, I use cd (for change directory): $ cd Documents (you may have to spell it with the right capitalisation, too!) Now, pwd again shows I have moved: $ pwd /home/hybrid/Documents We can create an empty file by touching it. After typing the name of the touch program, I press space, and the next thing it expects is the name of the file to create or update. I'll make one called new_document. $ touch new_document (I'm avoiding the complications of files with spaces and special characters in them for now!) To see the files in this folder, I can, again, ls it: $ ls The new file should appear in the list! You could also play with cp for copying the file, or even a simple text editor in the command line like nano (the keyboard shortcuts are listed at the bottom of the screen, where ^ means Ctrl+. So, to quit nano, you press Ctrl+X.) If you have any particular ideas about where you want to go next with the command line, let's hear 'em! We'd love for you to share your experiences with learning this cool stuff.
  14. Welcome to the forums! We're glad to have you here! sysctl net.ip4v.tcp_syncookies You've already noticed and pointed out that the issue here was mistyping ipv4 as ip4v, but I thought I'd clarify that was the issue here for anyone else reading. It happens to us all.
  15. hybrid

    I have a new tv now what?

    Interesting that you've used NFS for file storage. I'm always in a multi-OS environment so Samba is the file sharing standard I need to use to get the required level of compatibility! How are you getting on with NFS for accessing your media? Was setting it up anything like this, or have things changed since then?
  16. hybrid

    Kinda late but happy new year

    Happy New Year!
  17. hybrid

    linux and gaming

    I should really give CrossOver a try again. I've kept a Windows system running for those games that I do like to play there, but it'll be interesting to see how CX has evolved!
  18. hybrid

    has gnome finally relinquished ?

    This isn't particularly helpful, but I didn't really get on with Fedora's very frequent updates and changes to functionality either. CentOS is ideal, in my opinion, if stability is your focus. There are always virtual machines for playing with the latest and greatest...
  19. hybrid

    has gnome finally relinquished ?

    I wonder if this is something to do with 3D acceleration/Compiz? Is it that you're being presented with Classic because the 3D features aren't working, I wonder?
  20. hybrid

    how to get myubuntu 12.04 installed

    I think Ubuntu would probably run OK on that hardware. It likely won't be fast, though, so it depends whether you want the familiarity and packages that come with Ubuntu, or something that will perform better. As Dave has suggested, Xubuntu might be a good option for combining Ubuntu and a little bit of the lightweight factor!
  21. hybrid

    Favorite Desktop/Server Distro

    Thanks for the kind words, linuxblogger, and welcome to the forums!
  22. hybrid

    Wifi issues

    Our goal here would never be to flame someone for trying Linux, or for not immediately being an expert at everything! If anyone does ever that to you here, they certainly do not meet with the site's approval. Let's see if we can work out the best way to get the wifi behaving. A first point -- Kuki Linux is an older distribution that doesn't appear to be getting updated anymore. It might be that the problem will already be fixed if we can get to a newer distribution of Linux, or we may be able to stick with it and find a solution to the problem where we are at the moment. To start doing some research, I looked at this page. It looks like there are multiple models of computer that can be called the Aspire One. Do you know which one yours is? There might be quite significant differences between the different Aspire One models that will affect our decision as to the best way to solve the wifi problem! If you've only very recently looked at Kuki Linux, it's possible it was designed for earlier Aspire Ones, and that it might now be better to look for a different distribution that really will support the wifi out of the box. Or, if we can do some research with the model number, there might be some fixes other people have put together and shared that we can put into place. Let us know the model number if you can, and any other information on how you get on!
  23. hybrid

    Having issues dual booting

    It may be update-grub that you need to run -- you don't need to 'install' the GRUB2 code again, just force the configuration to be rebuilt from the /etc/grub.d scripts that generate it (the 10_, 20_, 30_, 40_ stuff)...
  24. hybrid

    A Hand-Full of Noob USB load questions

    Welcome to the forums, Walksouth!
  25. hybrid

    Oracle VM

    It does help a lot -- because we have a more specific error message, which almost always points us in the right general direction. I'm stabbing in the dark somewhat here, because I haven't used Oracle VM at all. (Oracle VM is apparently based on Xen, so we might also be able to find solutions to problems by looking for Xen resources/tutorials/solutions.) My brief scouring of Google suggests that this is an error where Oracle VM can't bring up the virtual machine's network device. Oracle VM, I believe, wants you to specify one of the network interfaces on your host computer to 'bridge' to the VM, so that both your host computer and the VM can access the network. What are the contents of the /OVS/seed_pool/hold/vm.cfg file? Could you also run: # ifconfig so we can see if you have any network interfaces ending in 'br*', which might be the bridges Oracle VM is looking for.
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